The Pey makes the "p" sound like "pine". When the dog (dagesh) is removed, the letter becomes a Fey and makes the "f" sound like "fight".
Written Hebrew in Israel leaves out the Nikkud (vowel symbols). The word in context indicates how a letter should be pronounced. Also, modern Hebrew has many words which are not in the Torah/Tanakh, such as telephone. Hebrew script (cursive) is used widely throughout Israel, though it is not covered in these lessons.
Video & Quiz
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