The Tav makes the "t" sound like "taco". It may appear with or without a dagesh, but the dagesh does not change the sound of the Tav.
Written Hebrew in Israel leaves out the Nikkud (vowel symbols). The word in context indicates how a letter should be pronounced. Also, modern Hebrew has many words which are not in the Torah/Tanakh, such as telephone. Hebrew script (cursive) is used widely throughout Israel, though it is not covered in these lessons.
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